Electron Accelerators and Applications
Industrial and medical accelerators
Paper Title Page
MOPOJO04 LightHouse - A Superconducting LINAC for Producing Medical Isotopes 35
  • J.M. Krämer, G. Blokesch, M. Grewe, B. Keune, V. Kümper, M. Pekeler, C. Piel, C. Quitmann, T.T. Trinh, P. vom Stein
    RI Research Instruments GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany
  The medical isoptope Mo-99 is used for diagnosing several 10 million patients every year. Up to now it is produced from enriched Uranium using high-flux neutron reactors. The Institute for Radio Elements (IRE), Belgium has ordered the design of a high-power superconducting linac for producing Mo-99 without use of nuclear fission as part of their SMART project. The LightHouse accelerator consists of a photo gun and 7 superconducting RF modules"*", a beam splitter and target illumination optics. It will deliver two electron beam of 75MeV and 1.5MW each. Photocathodes are prepared and transfered in-situ. We report on the design principles and the Beam Test Facility operating since April 2022.
*Based on Cornell CBeta design
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO04  
About • Received ※ 19 August 2022 — Revised ※ 24 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 26 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 September 2022
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MOPOJO07 Experimental Study to Optimize the Treatment Efficacy of Pharmaceutical Effluents by Combining Electron Beam Irradiation 38
  • P. Kumar, A.B. Kavar, M. Meena, P. Nama, A. Pathak, R. Varma
    IIT Mumbai, Mumbai, India
  • A.P. Deshpande, T.S. Dixit, R. Krishnan
    SAMEER, Mumbai, India
  Here, we report our first step towards tackling this issue at the roots by irradiating the pharmaceutical effluents from a stages of their existing treatment plant with an Electron Beam (EB) with doses varying from 25 kGy to 200 kGy. We have used a normal conducting pulsed wave linear accelerator developed by SAMEER. It produced a pencil beam of electrons of energy 6 MeV with an average current of 16 micro-Ampere. To ensure optimum dose delivery, Fluka-Flair Simulations have been used. We have successfully demonstrated that electron beam irradiation along with the use of conventional techniques like coagulation after the irradiation can further increase the efficacy of the process with a final reduction in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) to be as large as 65% in some of the cases.  
poster icon Poster MOPOJO07 [0.745 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO07  
About • Received ※ 17 August 2022 — Revised ※ 21 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 26 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 September 2022
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MOPOJO08 RF Design, Optimization and Multiphysics Study of a β = 1, 1.3 GHz Single Cell Accelerating Cavity for High-Intensity Compact Superconducting Electron Accelerator (HICSEA) 41
SUPCGE06   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • M. Meena, A. Pathak, R. Varma
    IIT Mumbai, Mumbai, India
  High-energy electron accelerators have been used in water purification for several years. They are very effective for the removal of complex impurities. This study aims to design a superconducting electron beam accelerator with an output energy of 1 MeV and beam power of 40 kW for wastewater treatment. A 1.3 GHz single cell elliptic cavity with β = 1 was designed and optimized for TM010 mode and an accelerating gradient of 15 MV/m. For the optimized cavity, the RF parameters, namely, R/Q, transit time factor and geometry factor (G) were found to be 174.93 ohm, 0.67 and 276 ohm, respectively. Multiphysics studies showed that the value of R/Q for fundamental accelerating mode was 174.93 ohm. It was much higher than that of other modes, thus, HOM coupler is not required for the system. The Lorentz force detuning coefficient after stiffening the cavity iris, and the temperature rise due to the RF surface losses were found to be 0.20 Hz/(MV/m)2 and 0.085 K, respectively. It is also observed that there is no occurrence of multipacting for the designed accelerating gradient.  
poster icon Poster MOPOJO08 [1.584 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO08  
About • Received ※ 24 August 2022 — Revised ※ 26 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 05 September 2022
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MOPOJO09 A Compact Inverse Compton Scattering Source Based on X-Band Technology and Cavity-Enhanced High Average Power Ultrafast Lasers 44
  • A. Latina, R. Corsini, L.A. Dyks, E. Granados, A. Grudiev, V. Musat, S. Stapnes, W. Wuensch
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • E. Cormier
    CELIA, Talence, France
  • L.A. Dyks
    Oxford University, Physics Department, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • G. Santarelli
    ILE, Palaiseau Cedex, France
  A high-pulse-current injector followed by a short high-gradient X-band linac is considered as a driver for a compact Inverse Compton Scattering source. We show that using a high-power ultrashort pulse laser operating in burst mode and a Fabry-Pérot enhancement cavity, X-rays with flux values over 1013 ph/s and photon energies up to MeV are achievable. The resulting high-intensity and high-energy X-rays allow for various applications, including cancer therapy, tomography, and nuclear waste management. A preliminary conceptual design of such a compact ICS source is presented, together with simulations of the expected performance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO09  
About • Received ※ 19 August 2022 — Revised ※ 30 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 06 September 2022
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MOPOJO10 The Linac Test Facility at Daresbury Laboratory 47
  • A.E. Wheelhouse, R. Schnuerer
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • H.L. Gasson, N. Patel, D.H. Rowlands, I. Tahir
    Teledyne-e2v UK Ltd, Chelmsford, United Kingdom
  • R. Schnuerer
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  The LINAC Test Facility (LTF) based at Daresbury Laboratory supports research and development of applications in medical, security, and environmental technologies through the operation of a Compact LINAC. This facility has been operated and upgraded over several years and this work has been performed in a collaboration between STFC and Teledyne e2v, enabling the facility to deliver an increased accelerating gradient of 6 MeV, which has broadened the capability to provide testing of radiotherapy and security scanning technologies. This paper de-scribes the developments undertaken, the benefits gained by both parties, and future planned improvements.  
poster icon Poster MOPOJO10 [0.707 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO10  
About • Received ※ 12 August 2022 — Revised ※ 19 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 13 October 2022
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MOPOJO11 Challenges for High-Energy X-Ray Security Screening Linacs 50
  • M. Jenkins, J. Ollier, M.G. Procter
    Rapiscan Systems Ltd, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
  X-ray based Cargo and Vehicle Inspection (CVI) systems are used for security and customs inspections at a variety of locations. To provide the maximum flexibility many users require mobile CVI systems to allow vehicles to be screened efficiently for threats and contraband. The need for mobile systems means that the linear accelerator, and ancillary systems, used to generate the x-rays must be compact, rugged, and reliable. These systems must meet image performance tests specified by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The IEC also defines a standard for material discrimination. The requirements of these standards mean that the x-ray output produced by the linac needs to be consistent during and between scans, with the stability and repeatability of the output being critical. The tolerances on the linac output to meet the performance standards combined with the need for a compact system gives an unusual challenge for the linac design. A review of how different stability measures impact the performance tests is presented. This is compared to current technologies and possible future linacs used for mobile CVI systems.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO11  
About • Received ※ 24 August 2022 — Revised ※ 26 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 29 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 September 2022
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MOPOJO12 Design of a Compact Linac for High Average Power Radiotherapy 53
  • C.D. Nantista, G.B. Bowden, Z. Li, M. Shumail, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B.W. Loo
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  We present the design of a compact, 10 MeV, 300 mA pulsed X-band linac developed for medical application. The layout, <1 m including gun, buncher, capture section and current monitor, is of a recent configuration in which the 36 main linac cavities are individually fed in parallel through side waveguide manifolds, allowing for split fabrication. Initially destined for experimental study of FLASH irradiation of mouse tumors, the design was developed as a prototype for realization of a PHASER cancer treatment machine, in which multiple linacs, powered sequentially from a common RF source, are to provide rapid treatment to patients from multiple directions without mechanical movement, delivering dosage on a time scale that essentially freezes the patient. In this paper, we focus on the RF design, beam capture optimization, mechanical design and fabrication of the linac itself, deferring discussion of other important aspects such as window and target design, experimental specification setting, radiation shielding and operations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO12  
About • Received ※ 22 August 2022 — Revised ※ 26 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 02 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 06 September 2022
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MOPOJO14 New X-Band and S-Band Linear Accelerators at Varex Imaging 56
  • A.V. Mishin, B. Howe, J. Stammetti
    Varex Imaging, Salt Lake City, USA
  We have designed, built, and high power tested advanced linear accelerators equipped with our new 3 MeV X-Band Accelerator Beam Centerline ABC-3-X-T-X and a Reduced Spot (RS) S-Band ABC-7ER-S-T-RS-X with broad 3 MeV to 8 MeV energy regulation, which demonstrated excellent performance and superior beam quality. We are immensely proud of these recent accomplishments and would like to share the news with the community.  
poster icon Poster MOPOJO14 [0.350 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO14  
About • Received ※ 19 August 2022 — Revised ※ 21 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 28 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 October 2022
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MOPOJO15 Low Energy Linac for Electronic Brachytherapy 59
  • C.-J. Jing, P.V. Avrakhov, J.R. Callahan, B.T. Freemire, E. Gomez, R.A. Kostin, A. Liu, S. Miller, W. Si, Y. Zhao
    Euclid TechLabs, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • D.S. Doran, W. Liu, J.G. Power
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • C.G. Liu, M. Pankuch
    Northwestern University, Northwestern Medicine Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois, USA
  • D. Mihalcea, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • W.D. Rush
    KU, Lawrence, Kansas, USA
  • J.S. Welsh
    Edward Hines Junior VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois, USA
  Funding: The project is supported by NNSA under Contract 89233121CNA000209.
The use of electronic brachytherapy (EB) has grown rapidly over the past decade. It is gaining significant interest from the global medical community as an improved user-friendly technology to reduce the usage of Ir-192. However, the present EB machines all use electron beams at energies of 100 kV or less to generate the X-ray photons, which limits their use to low dose-rate brachytherapy. We focus on the development of a compact and light weight 1-MeV linac to generate and deliver >250 kV X-ray photons to the patient. The device is intended to retrofit to existing brachytherapy applicators. In this paper we will report progress on this project.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO15  
About • Received ※ 20 August 2022 — Revised ※ 26 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 31 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 09 September 2022
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MOPOJO16 Cryogenic Accelerator Design for Compact Very High Energy Electron Therapy 62
MOOPA02   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • E.J.C. Snively, V. Borzenets, G.B. Bowden, A.K. Krasnykh, Z. Li, C.D. Nantista, M. Oriunno, M. Shumail, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B.W. Loo
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  Funding: This research has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-C02-76SF00515.
We report on the development of a cryogenic X-band (11.424 GHz) accelerator to provide electron beams for Very High Energy Electron therapy. The distributed coupling linac is designed with a 135° phase advance, capable of producing a 100 MeV/m accelerating gradient in a one-meter structure using only 19 MW when operating at 77 K. This peak power will be achieved through pulse compression of a 5-8 MW few-µs pulse, ensuring compatibility with a commercial power source. We present designs of the cryogenic linac and power distribution system, as well as a room temperature pulse compressor using the HE11 mode in a corrugated cavity. We discuss scaling this compact and economical design into a 16 linac array that can achieve FLASH dose rates (> 40 Gy/s) while eliminating the downtime associated with gantry motion.
slides icon Slides MOPOJO16 [1.320 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO16  
About • Received ※ 14 August 2022 — Revised ※ 18 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 01 September 2022 — Issue date ※ 26 September 2022
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MOPOJO17 Design and Optimization of a 100 kV DC Thermionic Electron Gun and Transport Channel for a 1.3 GHz High Intensity Compact Superconducting Electron Accelerator (HICSEA) 65
SUPCJO02   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
MOOPA03   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • P. Nama, A. Pathak, R. Varma
    IIT Mumbai, Mumbai, India
  Here we present, the design and optimization of a 100 kV DC thermionic electron gun, and a transport channel that provides transverse focusing through a normal conducting solenoid and longitudinal bunching with the help of a single gap buncher for a 1.3 GHz, 40 kW, 1 MeV superconducting electron accelerator. The accelerator is proposed to treat various contaminants present in potable water resources. A 100 kV thermionic electron gun with LaB6 as its cathode material was intended to extract a maximum beam current of 500 mA. To minimize beam emittance, gun geometry i.e. cathode radius, and height and radius of the focusing electrode are optimized. The minimal obtained emittance at the gun exit is 0.3 mm.mrad. A normal conducting focusing solenoid with an iron encasing is designed and optimized to match and transport the beam from gun exit to the superconducting cavity. Finally, a 1.3 GHz ELBE type buncher is designed and optimized to bunch the electron beam for further acceleration.  
slides icon Slides MOPOJO17 [1.268 MB]  
poster icon Poster MOPOJO17 [0.813 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPOJO17  
About • Received ※ 23 August 2022 — Revised ※ 24 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 27 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 31 August 2022
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MOPORI09 Linear Accelerator for Demonstration of X-Ray Radiotherapy with Flash Effect 243
MOOPA01   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • S.V. Kutsaev, R.B. Agustsson, S. Boucher, K. Kaneta, A.Yu. Smirnov, V.S. Yu
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • A.R. Li, K. Sheng
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  Funding: This project is funded by NIH, award number NIH R01CA255432.
Emerging evidence indicates that the therapeutic window of radiotherapy can be significantly increased using ultra-high dose rate dose delivery (FLASH), by which the normal tissue injury is reduced without compromising tumor cell killing. The dose rate required for FLASH is 40 Gy/s or higher, 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than conventional radiotherapy. Among the major technical challenges in achieving the FLASH dose rate with X-rays is a linear accelerator that is capable of producing such a high dose rate. We will discuss the design of a high dose rate 18 MeV linac capable of delivering 100 Gy/s of collimated X-rays at 20 cm. This linac is being developed by a RadiaBeam/UCLA collaboration for a preclinical system as a demonstration of the FLASH effect in small animals.
slides icon Slides MOPORI09 [0.954 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-MOPORI09  
About • Received ※ 19 August 2022 — Revised ※ 22 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 29 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 02 September 2022
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WE2AA02 RELIEF: Tanning of Leather with e-beam 645
  • R. Apsimon, D.A. Turner
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • K.A. Dewhurst
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • S. Setiniyaz
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • R. Seviour
    University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom
  • W.R. Wise
    University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom
  Funding: STFC through the grant reference ST/S002189/1, and the Cockcroft Institute core grant, STFC grant reference ST/P002056/1.
Tanning of leather for clothing, shoes and handbags uses potentially harmful chemicals that are often run off into local water supplies or require a large carbon footprint to safely recover these pollutants. In regions of the world with significant leather production this can lead to a significant environmental impact. However recent studies have suggested that leather can instead be tanned using a combination of electron beams in a process inspired by the industrial crosslinking of polymers, to drastically reduce the quantity of wastewater produced in the process; thereby resulting in a reduced environmental impact as well as potential cost savings on wastewater treatment. In this talk, initial studies of leather tanning will be presented as well as accelerator designs for use in leather irradiation.
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slides icon Slides WE2AA02 [1.803 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-WE2AA02  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 16 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 31 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 September 2022
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Medical Radioisotopes Production Focusing on Ra-225/Ac-225, Cu-67 and Mo-99/Tc-99m Using an Electron Linear Accelerator  
  • T. Tadokoro
    Hitachi, Ltd., Research & Development Group, Hitachi-shi Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  Ac-225 is a descendant nuclide of Ra-225 and has nuclear properties that make it well suited for use in targeted alpha therapy. However, Ac-225-radiopharmaceutical development has been prevented by insufficient supplies of Ac-225. An electron linac based Ra-225/Ac-225 production system has many advantages: the size of the system is relatively small, a high beam current is easily achieved and the cross section of the Ra-225 production reaction, Ra-225(gamma, n)Ra-225, is relatively high. Moreover, the production amounts of impurity nuclides are very small. These advantages can lead to a cost-effective system. With the final goal of implementing such a system, we have been evaluating the Ra-225/Ac-225 production amount in a real-scale system. To provide more cost-effectiveness, we have been considering production of other medical nuclides using the same system. Cu-67 is recently being studied as nuclides for treatment agents. Mo-99 is a parent nuclide of Tc-99m and commonly used in nuclear medicine. We also have carried out the evaluation of Cu-67 and Mo-99/Tc-99m production amounts. The R&D project of radioisotope production using electron linac will be presented in this conference.  
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slides icon Slides WE2AA03 [0.837 MB]  
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THPOPA06 Methods for VHEE/FLASH Radiotherapy Studies and High Dose Rate Dosimetry at the CLEAR User Facility 758
THOPA04   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
  • P. Korysko
    Oxford University, Physics Department, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom
  • J.J. Bateman, C.S. Robertson
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • R. Corsini, L.A. Dyks, W. Farabolini, V. Rieker
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  The interest for Very High Energy Electron (VHEE) radiotherapy (RT) for cancer treatment recently bloomed, given the present availability of high-gradient accelerator technology for compact, cost effective electron linacs in the 100-200 MeV energy range. Particularly promising is the so called FLASH high dose rate regime, in which cancer cells are damaged while healthy tissue is largely spared. VHEE beams are especially adapted for FLASH RT, given their penetration depth and the high beam current, needed to treat large deep seated tumors. In the CERN Linear Accelerator for Research (CLEAR) facility, a series of unique studies have been initiated on VHEE and FLASH RT issues, in collaboration with several multidisciplinary user groups. In this paper we briefly outline the activities and its main recent results, e.g. on localized dose deposition by beam focusing, and on chemical and biological test to clarify damage mechanisms. We then describe in details the dedicated systems and the techniques adopted - and in large part locally developed by the CLEAR team - in order to satisfy the user requirements, with particular attention to the crucial aspect of high dose rate dosimetry.  
slides icon Slides THPOPA06 [1.183 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2022-THPOPA06  
About • Received ※ 17 August 2022 — Revised ※ 22 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 31 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 October 2022
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